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ARMM HISTORY ARMM's precursors
- Amid escalating hostilities between government forces and the MNLF in the 1970s, President Marcos issued a proclamation forming an Autonomous Region in the Southern Philippines. However, in a plebiscite, the people opted against it and chose to remain in the existing Western and Central Mindanao regions.
- In 1979, Batas Pambansa No. 20 created the Regional Autonomous Government in Western and Central Mindanao regions.
- The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was created a few years after the Aquino administration initiated dialogues with the Moro National Liberation Front to resolve the Muslim secessionist problem.
- ARMM was created in 1989 by virtue of The Organic Act for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (RA 6734). In a plebiscite, only four provinces out of the several areas proposed to be included in ARMM opted to join the area of autonomy: Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.
- ARMM conducted its first elections in 1990.
- RA 9054 amended RA 6734 in 2001. The amended law expanded ARMM's area of autonomy. In a plebiscite, Basilan and Marawi City (in Lanao del Sur) opted to join ARMM.
- RA 9054 lapsed into law, without the signature of President Arroyo.
- In 2006, a new province was carved out of Maguindanao: Shariff Kabunsuan. Shariff Kabunsuan became the sixth province of ARMM, joining Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Basilan.
- In July 2008, the Supreme Court promulgated a ruling that voided the creation of Shariff Kabunsuan. Comelec says the Supreme Court’s ruling has no effect on the ARMM elections as the decision is not yet final.
PAST ARMM ELECTIONS
|ARMM ELECTION DATE||ELECTED REGIONAL GOVERNOR|
|February 12, 1990||Zacaria Candao|
|March 25, 1993||Liningding Pangandaman|
|September 9, 1996||Nur Misuari|
|November 26, 2001||Parouk Hussin|
|August 8, 2005||Zaldy Puti U. Ampatuan|
|Sources: COMELEC, NSCB|
- 1 regional governor
- chief executive of the regional government
- assisted by a cabinet not exceeding 10 members
- appoints the members of the cabinet, subject to confirmation by the Regional Legislative Assembly
- has control of all the regional executive commissions, agencies, boards, bureaus and offices
- advises the Regional Governor on matters of governance of the autonomous region
- Executive Council = regional governor + 1 regional vice governor + 3 deputy regional governors (each representing the Christians, the Muslims, and the indigenous cultural communities)
- the regional governor and regional vice governor have a three-year term; maximum of three terms; deputies' terms are co-terminus with the term of the regional governor who appointed them
- legislative branch of the ARMM government
- composed of regular members (3 members/district) and sectoral representatives
- three-year term; maximum of three consecutive terms
- exercises legislative power in the autonomous region, except on the following matters:
- foreign affairs
- national defense and security
- postal service
- coinage and fiscal and monetary policies
- administration of justice
- customs and tariff
- naturalization, immigration and deportation
- general auditing
- national elections
- maritime, land and air transportation, communications
- patents, trademarks, trade names and copyrights
- foreign trade
- may legislate on matters covered by the Shari’ah , the law governing Muslims
- As stated in RA 9054, ARMM "shall remain an integral and inseparable part of the national territory of the Republic"
- The President exercises general supervision over the Regional Governor.
- The Regional Government has the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges, subject to Constitutional provisions and the provisions of RA 9054.
- The Shari ah applies only to Muslims; its applications are limited by pertinent constitutional provisions (prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment).
- In July 2008, the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a section in RA 9054 which granted the ARMM Regional Assembly the power to create provinces and cities. The court held that creating provinces and cities is a power that only Congress can exercise. (Comelec says the Supreme Court's ruling has no effect on the ARMM elections as the decision is not yet final.)